Sitting and Chilling

Can your horse stand quietly beside you while you do other things? 

mary phone2It’s great to have a horse that is patient and will wait happily beside you while you say, open a gate, answer the phone, chat to a neighbour, but many horses are not patient by nature and so you need to train this as a behaviour.

Aoife sit chill

Here Aoife is sitting in the arena and Rua is learning to stand quietly beside her. 

Aoife sit chill CT

When he’s relaxed,  happy and keeping his distance from her, she clicks and treats to tell him that’s the behaviour she wants.  As Rua learns patience, the time between clicks becomes ever longer.

Starting to teach this behaviour is done in small increments…Basically you can think of it as asking a series of questions:  For every YES answer you click and treat, but it’s up to the trainer to set it up so that it’s easy for the horse to say YES.

  • Can you stand quietly beside me with your head forward?
  • Can you remain standing quietly for 1 second?
  • Can you stand beside me quietly for longer times (initially, increase the times slowly and vary them….1 sec, 2 sec, 4 sec, 2 sec, 3 sec, 6 sec etc)?
  • Can I stand a bit further away from you?
  • Can I stand further still?
  • Can you stand at a distance for longer times (increase the times slowly and vary them….1 sec, 2 sec, 4 sec, 2 sec, 3 sec, 6 sec etc)?
  • Can I sit beside you? ……..

One more tip….It can be very challenging for some horses to learn this at the early stages, they want to move.  So it’s essential to allow them.  Click and treat a couple of times for the standing behaviour but then go for a walk around before asking for the next trial.

The Dreaded Trailer Loading

trailer rope on bum trailer rear trailer refuseTime and time again, trailer loading a horse comes up as a major problem. We’ve all seen the pictures of horses being pushed, beaten or shoved into a horsebox.  We often see the reactions of frightened horses.  A quick look on YouTube will bring up dozens of videos produced by horse trainers showing how to get a difficult loader into a trailer.  The vast, vast majority of the methods used involve getting a horse to ‘move his feet’ when he’s outside the box and only allowing him to stand when he looks at, then puts a foot on the ramp, two feet on, etc.

Why is loading such a problem?  It is after all, just another behaviour amongst all the many behaviours we teach our horses.  In most cases the problems arise because of the way the horse has been taught to load or, more commonly, how he has been loaded from the start without any training.  Many people assume that loading is simply something the horse should ‘do’ and don’t see any need for training.

“We cannot expect to get a behaviour on a consistent basis unless we have gone through a process of teaching it”  is an Alexandra Kurland mantra that is very important to keep in mind.  So how do we teach trailer loading?   By using all the principles of any good training.

Firstly decide what the final behaviour will look like:  I recommend writing this out.

  • Do you want to lead your horse in?
  • Do you want to send your horse in?
  • Does your horse have to step up onto a ramp?
  • Does your horse have to rearrange himself in the trailer, e.g. move sideways?.
  • Does your horse have to stand while you rearrange partitions?
  • Does your horse have to stand while you close a butt bar?
  • Will your horse be tied up?
  • Will he walk forward to unload?
  • Will he back off the trailer?
  • How will you ask him to come out?
  • Will he have to back down that step?
  • And so on….look at all the options and see exactly what you want.

Now look at your list.  Each step in the loading/unloading process is a behaviour in itself. Before you go near a trailer, it is important that your horse is happy doing each component behaviour.  If there are any gaps in his repertoire, then they need to be addressed before a trailer comes into the picture.  If you have a horse who barges when being lead or panics when tied up, then he is nowhere near ready for the trailer.

One particular step that I find people fail to address adequately is getting the horse off the trailer.  Yes, he has to go in in order to come out but he can certainly learn to back in the field or arena.

For many horses that step down off the ramp backwards is a huge issue.  They cannot see the edge or judge how big the drop is.  They often stumble and panic.  Teach your horse to step onto a timber mat firstly.  Ask for just one foot, then build up to all four feet.  When this is easy, then ask him to step up onto a platform.  Start with one front foot up, then that foot down, repeating until the horse is completely comfortable with this.  Then other front foot up and down before asking your horse to bring up a hind foot.

When a horse is happy putting a hind foot up and down, I usually add a vocal cue to tell him the step down is coming.  This can be a huge help when the horse is trying to locate that step off the ramp or box.

trailer grassReward each step!!  We want our horses to load happily and for the whole training process to be a pleasant experience.  Make sure that being in the trailer is very enjoyable.  As with all clicker training we start rewarding the slightest try with a high rate of reinforcement and gradually build up to more and more complex chains of behaviour.

 

Misty and Marte demonstrate good loading:

And unloading….

 

 

 

Clicker Training in Dorset : Release

Reflecting on another wonderful three day workshop at Oakfield Farm in Dorset:

As ever, Nick and Mo have been the most amazing hosts, housing and feeding all course participants, and providing constant tea (or cold drinks, we had glorious sunny weather) and great good humour!

The course participants this time had all been together here last April so we all now know each other and it was great to catch up on what everyone had been doing in the interim.  On that previous workshop, the key word that emerged was sloooowly.  This time our keyword was ‘release’.

What does release mean?  The dictionary says it’s a verb meaning:
To allow or enable to escape from confinement; set free
To allow (something) to move, act or flow freely.

I really like the image of letting our horses free to flow.

So when did we need to release?  Every time we activate a lead rope or reins to ask for a behaviour and feel the slightest try or first movement (the lean to go forward, or even the chest muscle twitch for back) that’s our moment to release.

The release says ‘yes!  You got that right now just keep going until you hear a click or I ask for another behaviour.  In that way the release is also encouragement to continue.

Release does not mean simply drop the lead rope or reins, rather it means give it back tactfully. Our human horse work gave participants the opportunity to feel the difference between simply dropping the reins (rude and abrupt) and giving back the reins smoothly (gentle and reassuring).

The release should be complete.  In some situations walking alongside their horses, handlers were happy to release their front hand but were still holding up the other hand.  We likened this to driving with the handbrake on!  When we let go completely we can move off smoothly. However it can be hard and so initially we had handbrakes left slightly or half or even fully on.  What’s important to remember is that, having released fully, you can always pick up that rein or rope again when and as necessary.

Release does mean you are trusting your horse, whether it’s just for that fraction of a second before a click or for the time it takes to walk half a circle together….. We all, including our horses, appreciate being trusted.

Oakfield Icelandics chilling on a sunny day

Oakfield Icelandics chilling on a sunny day

Clicker Training in Dorset : Venya

The morning after a workshop in Oakfield Farm Dorset,  I was sitting in the conservatory looking out over several fields of gorgeous Icelandic horses grazing and snoozing contentedly in the early morning sun.  It’s a great way to relax after three full days of clicker training with a great bunch of people and horses!

We had people and horses with different levels of experience and so had great variety over the three days with some lovely improvements over the course.  We also had Alexandra Kurland ‘drop in’ for a cuppa and a chat on the Saturday via Skype

One was Venja, an Icelandic mare imported directly from Iceland several months ago.  Her new owner has been very busy and couldn’t give her the time she needed so she has been staying with Nick Foot at Oakfield Icelandics Farm.

In Iceland horses live out, essentially in the wild, until they are old enough to be started under saddle.  They are then herded en masse into a pen and the chosen horse is picked out.  A head collar is put on and the horse is taken out to be bridled, saddled and ridden for 20 min before being returned to the pen.  At the end of the day the horses are turned out and the process is repeated again the next day.

In Venja’s case, this left a horse who was quite fearful of humans and could not be caught in a field.  Prior to the clinic, Nick and Alison had done quite a bit of work with Venja, including sitting in her field with a book and feeding her treats from a bucket, when she approached.  She would not come close enough to touch or be caught and had to be herded down to the yard (gently) and into a pen as she also had an issue with her pelvis and needed some chiropractic work.

Nick wanted to be able to catch her in the field and lead her down to the yard, so this was our objective!

Her initial sessions were in a pen.  We started with just the polite manners game (Grown Ups Are Talking) where the horse stands politely alongside you with their head in front of their body and is clicked and treated for keeping it there.  In Venja’s case we were particularly looking for relaxation.  In the confines of the pen, she was able to take treats from Nicks hand.  Slowly we introduced scratching around the withers and neck.

In her next session we took her head collar off.  We wanted to make sure that she could still take treats from a hand when she wasn’t “trapped” by the head collar.  Same format with polite manners, scrithes, and targeting Nicks hand.  A big improvement was that she moved to touch his hand.  We had another short session (all sessions were kept quite short!) later that day where Nick started to move around her, all the time clicking and treating for softness and relaxation.

We then moved to the field.  She followed her companion to the gate and allowed Nick to stand close, so CT.  After an initial hesitation, she took her treat and stayed for more.  She then relaxed and was happy to target, be scratched and allow Nick to move around her.  When Nick moved a couple of steps away and invited her to follow, she did so willingly.

In her next session I introduced myself to Venya and we had some scratches and rubs.  Nick produced the head collar and had her target it several times before slowly putting it on her in easy stages.  He then added the lead rope and they went for a very short walk.

You can watch our evening session at the end of day 2.

A huge improvement …… objective achieved and we still had a day to consolidate, take her for short walks and move on to grooming and meeting a saddle again in the yard.

It was great to see the transformation of this little mare from high headed and tense near humans to trusting and relaxed.

More ORCA Conference information

Katie Bartlett also attended the ORCA conference and shared her wonderful notes.  Katie has put all these together on her website Equine Clicker Training .  As well as the speakers whose work was described by Mary Hunter, Katie has also posted notes for the talks of Dr Jaak Panksepp, Alexandra Kurland, Phung Luu and some private talks by Barbara Heidenrich, Steve Aibel and ORCA students.

Dr Jaak Panksepp

Dr Jaak Panksepp

Dr Panksepp is a neuroscientist who studies emotions in animals.  I was very interested to see that part of his talk also focused on the importance of PLAY and fun in teaching and learning…..he is also the man who discovered that rats laugh when tickled!

 

Alexandra Kurland

Alexandra Kurland

Alexandra Kurland has worked with horses for many years.  Her talk was about helping your horse to overcome anxiety and allowing your hands to feel relaxation.

Phung Luu

Phung Luu

Phung Luu works with birds and on free-flight shows.  With birds, your training has to be truly excellent, or they can simply fly away!

Thanks Katie for all you hard work taking and posting notes!

Wonderful information

ORCAOver the past couple of months, there have been several international conferences with outstanding speakers.  Sadly I have not been to any of these but I am fortunate enough to know some wonderful people who have attended some of these conferences and taken great notes which they are happy to make available to a wider audience.

The first was ORCA 2014, The Art and Science of Annimal Training conference, held in Texas.  Mary Hunter whose blog is stalecheerios, has written several excellent reports on presentations by Bob Bailey, Ken Ramirez, Kay Laurence and Steve White.  (Clicking on the name will take you to each speaker notes)

kay-laurence-and-mabel-300

Kay Laurence

steve white

Steve White

bob bailey

Bob Bailey

Ken R

Ken Ramirez

None of these are ‘horse people’ but the general philosophies and training that they use can by and large transfer across different species.  Steve White  and Kay Laurence are trainers of dogs (and their humans) while Bob Bailey and Ken Ramirez work with multiple species of animals

One thing in particular caught my eye….in Bob Bailey’s talk he suggested the following:

Ask yourself these questions for whatever you are doing:

  1. Are you having fun? Are you enjoying what you are doing?
  2. Do you want to have more fun? Do you want to keep doing this?
  3. Are you willing to pay the price for more fun?  That is, what are the consequences for what you are doing?
  4. Are you better off today than you were yesterday?  Meaning, are you moving in the direction you want to be moving in?

Having fun is such an important element for both motivation and learning.  Make sure that you and your horse keep enjoying what you do!!

Some NZ horses!

It’s hard to take photos during a workshop, so I rarely have nice pics, but here’s a few from New Zealand:

Peanut waits patiently for her treat

Peanut, who is just 2 year old, waits patiently for her treat

And here it comes!

And here it comes!

Buster shows his good manners

Buster shows his good manners

Clayton poses with some of the group.  At just 3 and 1/2 years old, he's already a very big boy!

Clayton poses with some of the group. At just 3 and 1/2 years old, he’s already a very big boy!

Lucy takes a treat polirely

Lucy takes a treat politely

Angel is a Kaimanawa, a feral horse from the central desert region of the North Island

Angel is a Kaimanawa, a feral horse from the central desert region of the North Island

Clayton learns to back up nicely

Clayton learns to back up nicely

Shaping ……What is it?

‘Shaping’ is the process of growing a behaviour in small increments.

It’s a little bit like the children’s game where you are directed to a place by someone saying that you’re cool (not too close) cold (wrong direction altogether), warm (right general direction) or hot (right there!).

The main difference is that when we shape a behaviour with animals, we only use ‘yes’ (warm/hot) answers.  We start by capturing a tiny bit of the behaviour we want to shape.  So, for example, if we want to shape head lowering to the ground, we simply observe the horse until we see his head dip down a fraction…click and treat.  Then watch to see if this is repeated, CT.  Capture this a few times and then wait for the horse to drop his head a little lower before clicking.  Very quickly your horse will recognise what’s happening and we continue clicking and treating each increment of head lowering until the horse is consistently lowering his head to the ground.

Aoife Stephens used this technique as part of her Young Scientist project in 2011 while she was in transition year in school  This video shows her working with a pony with no previous clicker training experience.

We can use as many steps or thin-slices as needed to go from the start to a finished behaviour….In scientific terms these are known as successive approximations.

Guidelines for successful shaping:

  • For this exercise, it’s important that your horse is completely free to leave the game. He can be at liberty in a paddock or loose in his stable.  The space doesn’t have to be huge but if he chooses to walk away, he must be free to do so.  In the video above you see Aoife working with a pony in an open shed where the pony can move away from her.
  • For a novice horse/pony or an animal you don’t know well, use protective contact. This means work behind a barrier as Aoife is doing here.  In this case it’s a very simple set-up with a rope strung across the front of the shed so that she can stay out of the pony’s space if he starts to mug her for food.  You can work behind a gate to a field, over a fence etc.
  • Keep your sessions short.  Take about twenty treats and when they’re all gone, finish your session (use a consistent signal to show the session is over e.g. show your empty hands)
  • When you finish a session move well away so as not to tease your horse.  This gives your horse a mental break.  The break need only be a few minutes…enough time to refill your pocket/pouch and assess how your session went.
  • Accept the slightest try to start with….a muscle twitch, or a few millimetres of movement, etc
  • Festina Lente…for the latin scholars.  It means make haste slowly.  Be prepared to put in lots and lots of steps/thin slices between the starting point and the finished behaviour.  It may seem like you’re taking longer but the learning is much better and its often quicker.
  • Have fun!  Think of this as a game, not work and it becomes a pleasure for both you and your horse!!

 

The Dreaded Donkey…and Rope-Handling skills

donkeyMIsty never liked donkeys.  She hated the noise they made and even the look of them. For years, our normally calm, relaxed, easy-going family cob became distinctly upset in the vicinity of donkeys.  This has mellowed over the years but I have always, for the past 18 or so years, been ‘donkey aware’ when out riding.

Newbie is a thoroughbred, with all the excitable and quick characteristics of the breed.  The first time we met a donkey, out walking in hand, I became anxious.  This was in our early months together and we were doing lots of targetting (can you touch the gate, scary bag in the ditch, dustbin, etc) for clicks and treats…….I could hardly ask him to touch the donkey!  However, much to my amazement, he was completely unfazed by the donkey once he spotted him.  I was always conscious of giving him time to see and observe other animals, donkeys, goats, sheep etc, as we came across them though.

Roll on many years to recently when we were returning home after an enjoyable hack around the parish. I knew that one of my neighbours had a donkey in his garden on temporary lawnmower duty and so as we came up to the house I made Newbie stop and look over the wall at said donkey who was tethered to a large metal pole in the centre of the lawn. The donkey looked at us but he was safely ensconsed behind a cattle grid. Calm and relaxed, we pottered on. Thirty or so yards down the road we heard an horrendous noise of metal banging on metal then metal on concrete and we both whirled around to see donkey galloping down the road towards us followed by a length of rope and metal pole hopping, banging and clanging behind him.

Newby dismount 2 (800x600) (2)We both reacted….Newbie’s thought was to wheel around and head for the hills, while my reaction was to slide down the reins and ask for head lowering. To my relief and delight, the head lowering response outweighed the “I’m out of here” response and Newbie stopped and dropped his head long enough for me to slide off his back.  Phew!!!!!

Donkey had now caught up with us and was quite determined to check out Newbie’s rear end.  So now Newbie was trying to avoid being followed by this creature while kicking out and circling me all at the same time.  I kept Newbie from running over me using my tai-chi rope handling skills (taught by Alexandra Kurland – the Tai Chi Wall keeps the horse’s shoulder over and away from the handler….more of this later).

Fortunately for us, another neighbour pulled up in her car, jumped out and asked how she could help.  I asked her to open the gate to an adjacent field and lead Newbie in, closely followed by donkey.  We had to move well into the field to allow donkey, rope and metal pole all get inside.  Newbie and I then made a dash for the gate and the neighbour closed it just in time to keep donkey in.

We then stood catching our breath while I repeatedly had Newbie drop his head CT, drop head CT, until we were both calm enough to walk on.  I was never more grateful for having practised a technique as much as I had practised head-lowering!