It’s hard to take photos during a workshop, so I rarely have nice pics, but here’s a few from New Zealand:
The Click That Teaches instructor, Mary Concannon will be giving at least two workshops in New Zealand early next year. The first two workshops are for complete beginners. No previous knowledge is required for either horse or handler.
The first is on 11th and 12th January in Waimauku, Auckland hosted by Monique Masoe. For bookings or further information contact: Monique at (64) 21 150 9513 or email: email@example.com
The following week, 18/19th January, the workshop will be in Whatawhata, Hamilton. Karen Drummond of Learning About Dogs is the organiser here. You can contact Karen for more details at (64) 21 655054 or email firstname.lastname@example.org
Keep an eye out for details of other workshops in NZ in February.
Looking forward to meeting new clicker trainers from this part of the world!
‘Shaping’ is the process of growing a behaviour in small increments.
It’s a little bit like the children’s game where you are directed to a place by someone saying that you’re cool (not too close) cold (wrong direction altogether), warm (right general direction) or hot (right there!).
The main difference is that when we shape a behaviour with animals, we only use ‘yes’ (warm/hot) answers. We start by capturing a tiny bit of the behaviour we want to shape. So, for example, if we want to shape head lowering to the ground, we simply observe the horse until we see his head dip down a fraction…click and treat. Then watch to see if this is repeated, CT. Capture this a few times and then wait for the horse to drop his head a little lower before clicking. Very quickly your horse will recognise what’s happening and we continue clicking and treating each increment of head lowering until the horse is consistently lowering his head to the ground.
Aoife Stephens used this technique as part of her Young Scientist project in 2011 while she was in transition year in school This video shows her working with a pony with no previous clicker training experience.
We can use as many steps or thin-slices as needed to go from the start to a finished behaviour….In scientific terms these are known as successive approximations.
Guidelines for successful shaping:
- For this exercise, it’s important that your horse is completely free to leave the game. He can be at liberty in a paddock or loose in his stable. The space doesn’t have to be huge but if he chooses to walk away, he must be free to do so. In the video above you see Aoife working with a pony in an open shed where the pony can move away from her.
- For a novice horse/pony or an animal you don’t know well, use protective contact. This means work behind a barrier as Aoife is doing here. In this case it’s a very simple set-up with a rope strung across the front of the shed so that she can stay out of the pony’s space if he starts to mug her for food. You can work behind a gate to a field, over a fence etc.
- Keep your sessions short. Take about twenty treats and when they’re all gone, finish your session (use a consistent signal to show the session is over e.g. show your empty hands)
- When you finish a session move well away so as not to tease your horse. This gives your horse a mental break. The break need only be a few minutes…enough time to refill your pocket/pouch and assess how your session went.
- Accept the slightest try to start with….a muscle twitch, or a few millimetres of movement, etc
- Festina Lente…for the latin scholars. It means make haste slowly. Be prepared to put in lots and lots of steps/thin slices between the starting point and the finished behaviour. It may seem like you’re taking longer but the learning is much better and its often quicker.
- Have fun! Think of this as a game, not work and it becomes a pleasure for both you and your horse!!
MIsty never liked donkeys. She hated the noise they made and even the look of them. For years, our normally calm, relaxed, easy-going family cob became distinctly upset in the vicinity of donkeys. This has mellowed over the years but I have always, for the past 18 or so years, been ‘donkey aware’ when out riding.
Newbie is a thoroughbred, with all the excitable and quick characteristics of the breed. The first time we met a donkey, out walking in hand, I became anxious. This was in our early months together and we were doing lots of targetting (can you touch the gate, scary bag in the ditch, dustbin, etc) for clicks and treats…….I could hardly ask him to touch the donkey! However, much to my amazement, he was completely unfazed by the donkey once he spotted him. I was always conscious of giving him time to see and observe other animals, donkeys, goats, sheep etc, as we came across them though.
Roll on many years to recently when we were returning home after an enjoyable hack around the parish. I knew that one of my neighbours had a donkey in his garden on temporary lawnmower duty and so as we came up to the house I made Newbie stop and look over the wall at said donkey who was tethered to a large metal pole in the centre of the lawn. The donkey looked at us but he was safely ensconsed behind a cattle grid. Calm and relaxed, we pottered on. Thirty or so yards down the road we heard an horrendous noise of metal banging on metal then metal on concrete and we both whirled around to see donkey galloping down the road towards us followed by a length of rope and metal pole hopping, banging and clanging behind him.
We both reacted….Newbie’s thought was to wheel around and head for the hills, while my reaction was to slide down the reins and ask for head lowering. To my relief and delight, the head lowering response outweighed the “I’m out of here” response and Newbie stopped and dropped his head long enough for me to slide off his back. Phew!!!!!
Donkey had now caught up with us and was quite determined to check out Newbie’s rear end. So now Newbie was trying to avoid being followed by this creature while kicking out and circling me all at the same time. I kept Newbie from running over me using my tai-chi rope handling skills (taught by Alexandra Kurland – the Tai Chi Wall keeps the horse’s shoulder over and away from the handler….more of this later).
Fortunately for us, another neighbour pulled up in her car, jumped out and asked how she could help. I asked her to open the gate to an adjacent field and lead Newbie in, closely followed by donkey. We had to move well into the field to allow donkey, rope and metal pole all get inside. Newbie and I then made a dash for the gate and the neighbour closed it just in time to keep donkey in.
We then stood catching our breath while I repeatedly had Newbie drop his head CT, drop head CT, until we were both calm enough to walk on. I was never more grateful for having practised a technique as much as I had practised head-lowering!
In mid September I had the pleasure of visiting Oakfield Farm in Dorset, England, to give a clicker training workshop. Nick Foot has been producing Icelandic horses here for a number of years and they are truly a wonderful breed.
For those of you who are not familiar with “Iceys” they are really pony sized, being anywhere from 12 to over 14 hands high (122-148cm) and originate in Iceland (as the name suggests!) Their size belies their strength! They come in an array of colours. Icelandics are the only horse found in Iceland which allows no importation of horses, and if they leave the country (even for competition), they are not permitted to return.
As well as the usual three gaits that ‘normal’ horses have i.e.,walk, trot and canter/gallop, they have two additional gaits. The ‘tolt’ is a fast, ground-covering four beat gait and the ‘pace’ is a very rapid smooth gait.
When I saw Brynja, who was a sturdy little mare but only something over 13 hands…I did ask…Are you sure?. My own thoroughbred is 16.2hh approx and I looked at this little creature with a degree of wariness. I need not have worried!!!!
Riding an Icey in tolt was described to me as being akin to a fast spin in a small sports-car and how true that is. Its a wonderful sensation, fast, smooth and low to the ground. We had a lovely ride from the farm through lanes and tracks over the gorgeous Dorset countryside and I came back with a grin from ear to ear!!
Can your horse stand quietly beside you while you do other things? It’s great to have a horse that is patient and will wait happily beside you while you say, open a gate, answer the phone, chat to a neighbour, but many horses are not patient by nature and so you need to train this as a behaviour.
Here Aoife is sitting in the arena and Rua is learning to stand quietly beside her. When he’s relaxed, happy and keeping his distance from her, she clicks and treats to tell him that’s the behaviour she wants. As Rua learns patience, the time between clicks becomes ever longer.
This time it was Misty’s turn for a paddle on the beach…. We’re very lucky in where we live in that the beach beside us is shingly and rocky to mid-tide but sandy at very low tides which makes for a wonderful playground for horses. Because there are so many glorious sandy beaches near us in Kerry, only local people use our beach and so I can safely play with my horses at liberty!
So Misty tried to drench me with splashes (and succeeded)
Misty is now a mature 20 years old. She has been in our family since she was a 2 year-old and has taught several people to ride (including me and my three, now grown-up, children, as well as Marte’s daughter and son). She’s spent the last few years mostly in Marte’s, having a pretty easy life!
Misty does know about mats and standing (being a cob/irish draft) is one of the things she does best! So mats can be used to build patience but also to build enthusiasm and movement. Michaela worked with Misty and multiple mats. These mats were scattered pretty randomly around the top half of the arena. Misty was perfectly happy to go and stand on any mat! Alex wanted her to move off with a proper bend and flexibility in her body so to get this MIchaela hugged her! This was a hug with a feel of movement in a direction away from Michaela. When Misty adjusted her balance..Click and Treat (CT).
Michaela then moved into the space that was opened up by Misty’s change of balance as she reached to give her a treat. The hugs were repeated until Misty was bent in the direction of the next mat, when Michaela picked up the lead and moved off with her. The amount of bend needed depended on the location of the next mat and can be made more or less by the choice of mat to move to. Initially they chose mats that were easy to reach with a little bend but as Misty softened and became more flexible, Michaela (and the audience) could pick mats that required more bend to reach.
As well as moving away from hugs, Michaela also asked Misty to move towards her with a hug. As Misty shifted her balance, Michaela moved back to allow Misty to bend more towards her.
In this case feeding is back further as Michael encourages Misty to keep the bend..
In all of the pictures where Misty is on the mat, the lead rope has been thrown casually over her back. This then becomes a cue to stand and wait.
In the next sequence of pictures, Michaela sets up the turn towards her with a couple of hugs and then lifts the rope off Misty’s back as they are ready to move onto the next mat.
To make the mat an even better place to be, we can add in other requests and put them on a high rate of reinforcement. During this clinic we used leg flexions in order to achieve this…. starting with the front feet.
Here Misty is barely lifting a front foot but as the session progressed she lifted it higher. As ever, successive approximations were used so for the initial try, CT, but with each ask, a little more is required. As she lifted higher Michaela could then support her foot by just holding the tip of her toe and hold her other hand up as a target for Misty’s knee.
Over the course of the clinic this improved hugely. Initially there was a lot of wiggling of her leg, but Misty learned to find the target and hold her knee there. Gradually Michaela changed her cue so that she could ask for the lift from touching the shoulder…This is needed to be able to transfer to asking under saddle.
The gallery below shows hind foot lifts….Click on a picture to enlarge it.
And so on to some ridden work:
A huge benefit of this clinic for Misty was that she learned to move very smartly from one mat to the next with huge enthusiasm. As she has been ridden primarily for the past three years by Marte’s now 5 year-old daughter, she has really only been pottering!! Her nature is that shes a quiet slow-moving cob….ideal for giving confidence to young children. In her earlier years she was an excellent show-jumper and so it was great to see her move quickly again and clearly loving it..
Another advantage is that at 20 years of age she now has a level of arthritis, so the leg lifts and flexions are a great way for Misty to build strength and keep her active.
As ever, when watching the clinic, I’m not very focused on taking photos so they’re not always the best or even very good moments that are shown here.
And finally…..I just love this picture of Michaela and Misty…even from this angle you can see that they are both focused on each other.
Summer has finally come to Kerry! Too hot for riding in the middle of the day, so Newbie and I went for a walk and a potter in the tide.
So this year on our clinic with Alexandra Kurland at Tralee, Co Kerry the main theme was working with mats. We had five horses at different levels in their training from Frua, who had never stood on a mat to Rocky, a three year old bog pony who could stand on a mat but not stay there, to Newbie who is very mat savvy and two others in-between.
For those of you who may not be familiar with Alex’s work one of her six foundation lessons is teaching a horse to stand on a mat. The functions of teaching this exercise are many. At it’s simplest level it asks the horse to trust the handler enough to step on a very different surface, one that usually makes a noise (we use wooden mats to start with most frequently). This is a behaviour that can be shaped but a more effective way is to use the lead rope to help the horse to find and step onto the mat. So even before we get to the mat, the handler needs to be able to use the leadrope to ask for forward and back. Getting big steps is reasonably easy and often we find that the horse gets close to the mat and takes a giant step forward in order NOT to step on it. Getting small steps back and forward is a lot more difficult and requires good timing and handling skills to be able to release the rope at the start of a movement and click at just the right place! It also requires good balance on the part of the horse.
Frua: When Frua started this exercise, he was not at all balanced. He was very downhill, with his weight completely on his front end and was very much inclined to fall out through his shoulder to either side. The first step was to get him to approach the mat in a straight line. Alex set up a ‘runway’ for him to approach the mats…this comprises two lines of cones in a V shape with the mat at the point of the V.
The runway gives an area for the horse and handler to do some preparation work before approaching the mat. Here we can ask the horse to take single steps forward and back and with each leg. This is a great lesson in control for the handler and balance for the horse. The critical thing is to release when movement starts so that your horse only takes a small step. This is accompanied by a click and treat. Once this has been performed a few times, the horse can be released to the mat. If he steps onto it….then lots of rapid clicks and treats follow. If he steps over or around the mat, then the backward and forward movements can be used to re-position him.
After a bit, the handler walks off casually and circles around to get to the centre of the mouth of the runway. Another function of the runway is to set the horse up to approach the mat in a straight line to make it as easy as possible for him to succeed when he reaches the mat.
As he progressed over the three days, Frua’s balance improved. Miriam did a super job of asking him to move forward and back with a light feel.
These pics show how much better Frua was in his balance and how Miriam could now feed him in a much more uphill frame. Not the ideal picture (and far from his bestattempt – It’s hard to capture the perfect moment of squareness when you’re taking pics but trying to really concentrate in a clinic…. ), we can still see how much more upright and balanced he has become.
He led beautifully into the arena with Marte on a loose lead and was remarkably calm. (His head collar had been picked out by Marte’s 5 year old daughter and was modified during the course of the session to make it fit much better!)
Rocky had just been introduced to matwork but was still inclined to paw and had no duration so this was his starting point.
Over the course of the three days, Rocky’s mat work improved hugely. Marte has torn ligaments in her knee and should only be walking for a max of 5 min per day. She found it hard to keep up with her quick little man, and so he became a bit grabby for food. Holding his head collar for food delivery was a huge help but Marte was struggling with her balance and so Alex did some work with Rocky. It was great to see how she built duration on the mat with Rocky by placing the rope over his neck initially, CT, then moving back to give him sctriches on his neck (CT) withers, back etc so that he was more than happy to stand on the mat before moving off around to approach again. Not only was he building duration but he was also getting more and more comfortable with being handled all over his body.
Alex’s other tip for Rocky was to expand the playground. There were extra mats for him en route to the top of the runway. Then Alex decided it would be nice to add in some heelwork and so she brought in a chair to sit in. When Rocky aligned himself alongside reasonably well he got CTed a few times then Alex stood up and walked off dragging the chair behind her. With a pony who is handled by children, it’s important not to be too precious and particular. He has to get used to getting directions that may be a bit varied with his small size handlers and cope with their bumping and banging! Rocky adapted to this quickly and on the last day he played ‘heel with Marte at liberty.
Now she can sit and rest while still training!! It’s also a great height for food delivery.